THE TRIBUNAL -

Article 11 : Number of Arbitrators

If the parties have not agreed on the number of arbitrators, one arbitrator shall be appointed unless the Administrator determines in its discretion that three arbitrators are appropriate because of the size, complexity, or other circumstances of the case.

Article 12 : Appointment of Arbitrators

1. The parties may agree upon any procedure for appointing arbitrators and shall inform the Administrator as to such procedure. In the absence of party agreement as to the method of appointment, the Administrator may use the ICDR list method as provided in Article 12(6).

2. The parties may agree to select arbitrators, with or without the assistance of the Administrator. When such selections are made, the parties shall take into account the arbitrators’ availability to serve and shall notify the Administrator so that a Notice of Appointment can be communicated to the arbitrators, together with a copy of these Rules.

3. If within 45 days after the commencement of the arbitration, all parties have not agreed on a procedure for appointing the arbitrator(s) or have not agreed on the selection of the arbitrator(s), the Administrator shall, at the written request of any party, appoint the arbitrator(s). Where the parties have agreed upon a procedure for selecting the arbitrator(s), but all appointments have not been made within the time limits provided by that procedure, the Administrator shall, at the written request of any party, perform all functions provided for in that procedure that remain to be performed.

4. In making appointments, the Administrator shall, after inviting consultation with the parties, endeavor to appoint suitable arbitrators, taking into account their availability to serve. At the request of any party or on its own initiative, the Administrator may appoint nationals of a country other than that of any of the parties.

5. If there are more than two parties to the arbitration, the Administrator may appoint all arbitrators unless the parties have agreed otherwise no later than 45 days after the commencement of the arbitration.

6. If the parties have not selected an arbitrator(s) and have not agreed upon any other method of appointment, the Administrator, at its discretion, may appoint the arbitrator(s) in the following manner using the ICDR list method. The Administrator shall send simultaneously to each party an identical list of names of persons for consideration as arbitrator(s). The parties are encouraged to agree to an arbitrator(s) from the submitted list and shall advise the Administrator of their agreement. If, after receipt of the list, the parties are unable to agree upon an arbitrator(s), each party shall have 15 days from the transmittal date in which to strike names objected to, number the remaining names in order of preference, and return the list to the Administrator. The parties are not required to exchange selection lists. If a party does not return the list within the time specified, all persons named therein shall be deemed acceptable. From among the persons who have been approved on the parties’ lists, and in accordance with the designated order of mutual preference, the Administrator shall invite an arbitrator(s) to serve. If the parties fail to agree on any of the persons listed, or if acceptable arbitrators are unable or unavailable to act, or if for any other reason the appointment cannot be made from the submitted lists, the Administrator shall have the power to make the appointment without the submission of additional lists. The Administrator shall, if necessary, designate the presiding arbitrator in consultation with the tribunal.

7. The appointment of an arbitrator is effective upon receipt by the Administrator of the Administrator’s Notice of Appointment completed and signed by the arbitrator.

Article 13 : Impartiality and Independence of Arbitrator

1. Arbitrators acting under these Rules shall be impartial and independent and shall act in accordance with the terms of the Notice of Appointment provided by the Administrator.

2. Upon accepting appointment, an arbitrator shall sign the Notice of Appointment provided by the Administrator affirming that the arbitrator is available to serve and is independent and impartial. The arbitrator shall disclose any circumstances that may give rise to justifiable doubts as to the arbitrator’s impartiality or independence and any other relevant facts the arbitrator wishes to bring to the attention of the parties.

3. If, at any stage during the arbitration, circumstances arise that may give rise to such doubts, an arbitrator or party shall promptly disclose such information to all parties and to the Administrator. Upon receipt of such information from an arbitrator or a party, the Administrator shall communicate it to all parties and to the tribunal.

4. Disclosure by an arbitrator or party does not necessarily indicate belief by the arbitrator or party that the disclosed information gives rise to justifiable doubts as to the arbitrator’s impartiality or independence.

5. Failure of a party to disclose any circumstances that may give rise to justifiable doubts as to an arbitrator’s impartiality or independence within a reasonable period after the party becomes aware of such information constitutes a waiver of the right to challenge an arbitrator based on those circumstances.

6. No party or anyone acting on its behalf shall have any ex parte communication relating to the case with any arbitrator, or with any candidate for party-appointed arbitrator, except to advise the candidate of the general nature of the controversy and of the anticipated proceedings and to discuss the candidate’s qualifications, availability, or impartiality and independence in relation to the parties, or to discuss the suitability of candidates for selection as a presiding arbitrator where the parties or party-appointed arbitrators are to participate in that selection. No party or anyone acting on its behalf shall have any ex parte communication relating to the case with any candidate for presiding arbitrator.

Article 14 : Challenge of an Arbitrator

1. A party may challenge an arbitrator whenever circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to the arbitrator’s impartiality or independence. A party shall send a written notice of the challenge to the Administrator within 15 days after being notified of the appointment of the arbitrator or within 15 days after the circumstances giving rise to the challenge become known to that party. The challenge shall state in writing the reasons for the challenge. The party shall not send this notice to any member of the arbitral tribunal.

2. Upon receipt of such a challenge, the Administrator shall notify the other party of the challenge and give such party an opportunity to respond. The Administrator shall not send the notice of challenge to any member of the tribunal but shall notify the tribunal that a challenge has been received, without identifying the party challenging. The Administrator may advise the challenged arbitrator of the challenge and request information from the challenged arbitrator relating to the challenge. When an arbitrator has been challenged by a party, the other party may agree to the acceptance of the challenge and, if there is agreement, the arbitrator shall withdraw. The challenged arbitrator, after consultation with the Administrator, also may withdraw in the absence of such agreement. In neither case does withdrawal imply acceptance of the validity of the grounds for the challenge.

3. If the other party does not agree to the challenge or the challenged arbitrator does not withdraw, the Administrator in its sole discretion shall make the decision on the challenge.

4. The Administrator, on its own initiative, may remove an arbitrator for failing to perform his or her duties.

Article 15 : Replacement of an Arbitrator

1. If an arbitrator resigns, is incapable of performing the duties of an arbitrator, or is removed for any reason and the office becomes vacant, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed pursuant to the provisions of Article 12, unless the parties otherwise agree.

2. If a substitute arbitrator is appointed under this Article, unless the parties otherwise agree the arbitral tribunal shall determine at its sole discretion whether all or part of the case shall be repeated.

3. If an arbitrator on a three-person arbitral tribunal fails to participate in the arbitration for reasons other than those identified in Article 15(1), the two other arbitrators shall have the power in their sole discretion to continue the arbitration and to make any decision, ruling, order, or award, notwithstanding the failure of the third arbitrator to participate. In determining whether to continue the arbitration or to render any decision, ruling, order, or award without the participation of an arbitrator, the two other arbitrators shall take into account the stage of the arbitration, the reason, if any, expressed by the third arbitrator for such non-participation and such other matters as they consider appropriate in the circumstances of the case. In the event that the two other arbitrators determine not to continue the arbitration without the participation of the third arbitrator, the Administrator on proof satisfactory to it shall declare the office vacant, and a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed pursuant to the provisions of Article 12, unless the parties otherwise agree.